French presence and its impact on the emergence of Cambodian nationalism (1920-1937)
This paper examines the French presence and its effect on the emergence of Cambodian nationalism (1920-1937). There were serious measures on the part of the French to change the general conditions in the Cambodian kingdom for the better, but because the French continued their repressive methods against the Cambodians that gave rise to nationalist feelings against them. The turmoil of political and economic conditions during the years (1927-1935) helped the emergence of the Hindu Communist Party during the year 1930 in Indochina. The establishment of the Nagravata newspaper and its impact on Cambodian society (1936-1937) was not against the French presence in Cambodia but on the contrary, the other Cambodian newspaper and publications were promoting that the Cambodians (Khmer) viewed the French as protectors against their neighbors, and that the main enemy was the Vietnamese, but at The establishment of the Cambodian Youth League began to demand Cambodian rights from French colonialism.
ثانياً: الرسائل والاطاريح الجامعية باللغة الانكليزية:
1. Breanna Atwood, Khmer Rouge: Evolution of the Academic Debate, A Senior Project, The Faculty of the History Department California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, March, 2010.
2. Fionn Travers-Smith, The Role of Ideologty in a terror state: Democratic Kampuchea, 1975-1978, Undergraduate Dissertation, Department of Historical Studies, University of Bristol, 2010.
ثالثاً: الكتب المطبوعة باللغة الانكليزية:
1. Alexander Laban Hinton, Man or Monster? The Trial of a Khmer Rouge Torturer, Duke University Press, Durham and London.
2. Alexandra Kent and David Chandler, People of Virtue Reconfiguring Religion, Power and Moral Order in Cambodia Today, Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Malaysia, 2008.
3. Anna Jacobson Schwartz and Others, The Great Contraction 1929–1933, The National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton University Press, New York, 2009.
4. Ben Kiernan and Others, External and Indigenous Sources of Khmer Rouge Ideology,” in The Third Indochina War: Conflict between China, Vietnam and Cambodia, Genocide Studies Program, Yale University, 2006.
5. Boraden Nhem, The Khmer Rouge: Ideology, Militarism, and the Revolution That Consumed a Generation, Santa Barbara, California, 2013.
6. Charle F. Keyes and Others, Religion and the Modern States of East and Southeast Asia, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1994.
7. David Chandler, A History of Cambodia. Edition, 3rd, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 2000.
8. David Chandler, Cambodia's Historical Legacy in: The Author is Unknown, An International Review of Peace Initiatives Safeguarding Peace: Cambodia's Constitutional Challenge, Published by Conciliation Resources, London, and In association with The Khmer Institute of Democracy, Phnom Penh, 1998.
9. David P. Chandler, Brother Number One: A Political Biography of Pol Pot, Westview Press, Boulder,Colorado, 1999.
10. Gina Chon and Sambath Thet, Behind the Killing Fields: A Khmer Rouge Leader and One of His Victims, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 2010.
11. H. J. Nesbitt, Rice Production in Cambodia, International Rice Research Institute, Cambodia-IRRI- Project, Australia, 1997.
12. Hanna Samir Kassab, Weak States in International Relations Theory- The Cases of Armenia, St. Kitts and Nevis, Lebanon, and Cambodia, First edition, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2015.
13. Irwin Silber, Kampuchea The Revolution Rescued, The Institute for Social and Economic Studies, March Publications,Oakland, California, Printed in the U.S.A., 1986.
14. Jason Barber, Less Than Human Torture in Cambodia A licadho Project Against Torture report, Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO) Phnom Penh, June 2000.
15. John S. Bowman, Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, Columbia University Press, New York, 2000.
16. John Tully, A Short History of Cambodia From Empire to Survival, First published, South Wind Production, Singapore, 2005.
17. Justin Corfield, The History of Cambodia- The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations, Santa Barbara, California , 2009.
18. Kerry Jacobs, Revolution and the Accountant: The Practice and Profession of Accounting in Cambodia, College of Business and Economics, The Australian National University, Canberra- Australia 2000.
19. Lucy Keller, UNTAC in Cambodia – from Occupation, Civil War and Genocide to Peace, Koninklijke Brill N.V., The Netherlands, 2005.
20. Michael Vickery, Cambodia, 1975-1982, South End Press, Boston,1984.
21. Michael Vickery, Kampuchea Politics, Economics and Society, Frances Pinter (Publishers), Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., London, 1986.
22. Paul Pasch, Cambodia 1975-2005 Journey through the Night, A photo exhibition of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Singapore, 2006.
23. The Author is Unknown, Night of The Khmer Rouge: Gencide and Justice in Cambodia, Paul Robeson Gallery, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, 2007.
24. The Author is Unknown, Observance and Memorial- The Cambodian Genocide, N. P., N. D..
رابعاً: البحوث والمقالات والتقارير المطبوعة باللغة الانكليزية:
1. Alexandra Kent, Recovery of the collective spirit: The role of the revival of Buddhism in Cambodia, Published Research, Department of Social Anthropology, Goteborg University, June, 2003.
2. Anne Yvonne Guillou , Medicine in Cambodia during the Pol Pot Regime (1975-1979), Published Research, Graduate Center of City University of New York, July 8, 2004.
3. Author is Unknown, Education and Fragility in Cambodia, International Institute for Educational Planning, NESCO, Printed in IIEP’s ,2011.
4. Cathy J. Schlund-Vials, Khatharya Um, From the Land of Shadows: War, Revolution, and the Making of the Cambodian Diaspora, Occasional Paper ,Series V 1, Oxford University Press , 2015.
5. Christine Malumphy and B.J. Pierce, Cambodia's Search for Justice, Opportunities and Challenges for the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, February 2009.
6. David M. Ayres, Anatomy of A Crisis Education, Development and the State in Cambodia, 1953 –1998, University of Hawai‘i Press, Honolulu, 2000.
7. Hilary Grant, Manipulations of Cambodian Nationalism: From French Colonial Rule to Current Polity, Published Research, Memorial University, Volume 1, Winter 2009.
8. Isabelle Chan, Rethinking Transitional Justice: Cambodia, Genocide, and a Victim-Centered Model, Published Research, Macalester College, 5-1-2006.
9. Jeffrey Himel, Khmer Rouge Irrigation Development in Cambodia, Published Research, Documentation Center of Cambodia, 11 April 2007.
10. Kacey Manlove, Year Zero How Communism and the Cold War Deformed Cambodia, Published Research, Historical Paper Junior Division, N. P., N. D.
11. Michael Charles Rakower, The Khmer Rouge: An Analysis of One of the World’s Most Brutal Regimes, Published Research, N. P., N. D.
12. Philippe Taylor, Cambodge:l’invasion Vietnamienne continue, in: Kith Chamroeun and Chhum Daravudh, Vietnam and the Cambodian Tragedy, Published Research, Cambodian Perspective Review, December, 2013.
13. Steven Michael DeBurger, The Khmer Rouge and the Re-Visioning of the Khmer Empire: Buddhism encounters Political Religion, Published Research, Department of Political Science, University of Hawai`i at Manoa, 2011.
14. The Author is Unknown, Agricultural Water Management Planning in Cambodia, Published Research, International Water Management Institute (IWMI), June, 2013.
15. The Author is Unknown, Simulation on The Cambodia Peace Settlement, Published Research, United States Institute of Peace, April 24, 1998.
16. Thomas Clayton, Education under Occupation: Political Violence, Schooling, and Response in Cambodia, 1979-1989, Published Research, Columbia University, 2002.
17. Wendy Lambourne, The Khmer Rouge Tribunal: Justice for Genocide in Cambodia?, Published Research, Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Sydney, 2008.
خامساً: المجلات المطبوعة باللغة الانكليزية
1. Sideth S. Dy, Strategies and Policies for Basic Education in Cambodia: Historical Perspectives, International Education Journal, Institute of Comparative and International Education, Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, Vol 5, No. 1, 2004.
2. Herbert D. Bowman, Not Worth the Wait: Hun Sen, The UN, and the Khmer Rouge Tribunal, Pacific Basin Law Journal, Indianapolis Center for International & Comparative Law, Indiana University School of Law ,Vol. 24 / 51, 2006.
3. Ben Kiernan, Myth, nationalism and genocide, Journal of Genocide Research, Carfax Publishing Taylor & Francis Group, 2001.
سادساً: الموسوعات والقواميس المطبوعة باللغة الانكليزية:
1. Cathal J. Nolan, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of International Relations, Volume: 2,Greenwood Press, Westport, CT., 2002.
سابعاً: المواقع والصحف الالكترونية على شبكة المعلومات الدولية (الانترنت):
1. The Author is Unknown, Norodom Sihanouk, Newspaper The Telegraph, 15 October 2012.
2. The Encyclopedia Britannica, 2020. http://www.britannica.com
3. The Columbia Encyclopedia, The Columbia University Press. 2018. www.questia.com.
Copyright (c) 2022 Thi Qar Arts Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Thi Qar Arts Journal is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows users to copy, to create extracts, abstracts and new works from the Article, to alter and revise the Article, and to make commercial use of the Article (including reuse and/or resale of the Article by commercial entities), provided the user gives appropriate credit (with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI), provides a link to the license, indicates if changes were made and the licensor is not represented as endorsing the use made of the work. The authors hold the copyright for their published work on IJVS website, while IJVS responsible for appreciate citation for their work, which is released under CC-BY-4.0 enabling the unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction of an article in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.