Ibrahim Yazdi: His Life and Political Activities in Iran until 1979





Iranian Revolution, Iran Liberation Movement, Iranian personalities, Ibrahim Yazdi


Ibrahim Yazdi is considered one of the most mysterious revolutionary figures in Iran, as he worked with the movements opposing the Shah's regime early in his life. His political activity emerged since 1946 when he joined the "Servants of God Socialist" movement, and then became a prominent member of the National Front after the fall of the government. Dr. Muhammad Mossadeq in 1953, after which he emigrated to the United States of America in 1961 and led the opposition movement abroad until 1979, the year in which he returned to the country after a trip of absence that culminated in political activity opposing the Shah's regime.

His name was associated with Mr. Khomeini in France and he returned with him to Iran, and although he assumed the position of Minister of Foreign Affairs of the country in the interim government formed by Mehdi Bazarkan, he soon resigned from it following the attack on the American Embassy on November 4, 1979 and its repercussions on Iran and its international isolation. The strongest opponent of the policy of what was known at the time as the "revolutionary government", because he believed that it contradicted the principles of human rights and international treaties.


Download data is not yet available.


F.R.U.S., Cable, CIA, from Stockholm Station to Director, [meeting with Amir- Entezam], October 5, 1979.

F.R.U.S., Cable, CIA, Tehran Station to Director, [on CIA briefing of Bazargan], August 23, 1979.

F.R.U.S., Cable, Secretary of State's Delegation in New York to State Department and American Embassy Tehran, "Assistant Secretary Saunder's Meeting with Foreign Minister Yazdi", October 4, 1979.

F.R.U.S., Cable, State Department to American Embassy Tehran, "Meeting with Fonmin Yazdi on Defense Issues," October 6, 1979.

F.R.U.S., National Intelligence Daily (excerpt), CIA, "Situation Report: Iran," January 6, 1979.

F.R.U.S., Telegram, William Sullivan to State Department, "Looking Ahead: The Military Option,"

Secondly: Theses and Dissertations

Thamer Maki Ali Al-Shammari, Mohammad Mosaddegh: His Life and Political Role in Iran, Unpublished Master's Thesis, College of Arts - University of Baghdad, 2008.

Jassem Mohammad Hayis, The Government of Bazaargan: A Study of Internal Political Developments in Iran 1979, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Basra - College of Arts, 2000.

Hussain Kareem Hamood Al-Humaidawi, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Institute of Arab History and Scientific Heritage, Baghdad, 2007.

Khaled Musa Jawad, US-Iranian Relations 1968-1988, Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of Baghdad - College of Political Science, 1990.

Ali Khaweer Matar Al-Hajami, Iraqi-Iranian Political Relations 1968-1979, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Wasit University - College of Education, 2006.

Mortada Abdul Hussain Muftan Al-Qatarani, Shapur Bakhtiar 1914-1979, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Basra - College of Arts, 2012.

Hani Obaid Zibari, Imam Musa Al-Sadr and His Political, Cultural, and Social Role in Lebanon 1960-1978, Unpublished Master's Thesis, College of Arts - University of Basra, 2010.

Hind Taher Khalaf Al-Bukaa, Iranian-Soviet Relations 1941-1951, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Al-Mustansiriya University - College of Education, 2004.

Wafaa Abdul Mahdi Rashid Al-Shammari, Internal Political Developments in Iran 1964-1979, Unpublished Master's Thesis, Al-Mustansiriya University - College of Education, 2006.

Simen Staff Bakken, A Difficult Balancing Act: US Policy towards Iran, 1977–1979, Master’s Thesis in History Department of Archeology, Conservation, and History (IAKH), University of Oslo, 2015.

Thirdly: Arabic and Translated Books (Arabic books are listed, but I'll provide translations for the titles)

Arabic Books

Ahmed Al-Wasti, Biography and Life of Imam Khomeini, (Beirut: Dar Al-Hadi for Printing and Publishing, 1998).

Ahmed Shaker Abdul Alaq, Parties and Political Organizations in Iran 1963-1979, (Baghdad: Al-Rafid for Printing, 2015).

Ahmed Mahaba, Iran Between the Crown and the Turban, (Cairo: Dar Al-Hurriyah for Printing and Publishing, 1989).

Edouard Sablier, Iran: Gunpowder Depot "Secrets of the Islamic Revolution", Translation: Azaddin Mahmoud Al-Sarraj, (Baghdad: Dar Al-Hurriyah for Printing, 1983).

Osama Khalil, From Palace to Grave: The Shah, (Cairo: Al-Rayya Center for Publishing, 2010).

Agha Bozorg Al-Tehran, Al-Dhari'ah to Shia's Writings, (Beirut: Dar Al-Adwa Publications, 1403 AH / 1983 CE).

Amal Al-Sabbaki, Political History of Iran Between Two Revolutions 1906-1979, (Kuwait, Alam Al-Ma'rifah, 1999).

Andrew S. Cooper, Falling Sky: The Pahlavis and the Last Days of the Iranian Empire, Translation: Qais Qasim Al-Ajrawi, (Baghdad: Dar Sutoor for Publishing and Distribution, 2023).

Odo Zauter, Presidents of the United States Since 1789 to Date, Translation: (London, Dar Al-Hikmah for Publishing and Distribution, 2006).

Jalal Al-Din Muddani, Contemporary Political History of Iran, Translation: Salem Mushkoor, (Tehran, Islamic Information Organization, 1993).

Khudair Al-Badairi, Reza Shah Pahlavi and the Iranian Throne 1878-1925, (Beirut: Al-Aref for Printing, 2021).

Dar Al-Houra, Pulpit and Sanctuary of Imam Musa Al-Sadr 1960-1969 in Word and Image, Beirut, 1987).

David Crist, The Twilight War: The Secret History of America's Thirty-Year Conflict with Iran, Translation: Raja Shalabi, (Beirut, Al-Matbu'at Company for Distribution, 2016).

Cyrus Vance, Memoirs: Tough Choices, 2nd ed., (Beirut, Arab Center for Information, 1984).

Shakir Kassirai, Iran: Parties and Political Figures 1890-2013, (Beirut: Riad El-Rayyes Books and Publishing, 2014).

Shakir Kassirai, Modern Iran's History - Struggle of Political Currents, (Beirut: Dar Al-Arabi for Encyclopedias, 2016).

Shirin Abadi, Iran Awakens - Reflections - Revolution and Hope Memoirs, 2nd ed., Translation: Hussam Aitani, (Beirut: Dar Al-Saqi, 2011).

Adel Ruof, Islamic Work in Iraq Between Religious Authority and Partisanship, (Damascus: Iraqi Media and Studies Center, 2005).

Abdel Hussein Mughnia, Experiences of Muhammad Javad Mughnia, Review and Verification: Riad Al-Dabbagh, (Qom, Anwar Al-Huda for Printing and Publishing, 1425 AH).

Abdel Karim Al-Ha'iri Al-Yazdi, Pearls of Benefits, 6th ed., Vol. 1, (Qom, Islamic Nashr Institute, 1418 AH).

Abdel Hadi Salman, Iran in the Years of World War II, Arab Gulf Studies Center Publications, (Basra, Dar Al-Kutub for Printing and Publishing, 1986).

Akab Youssef Al-Rikabi and Haider Ali Khalaf Al-Akili, Reagan and Iran: US Policy towards the Iranian Revolution 1981-1989, Part 1, (Baghdad: Dar and Library Adnan, 2020).

Ali Rahnama, Ali Shariati: A Political Biography, Translation: Ahmed Hassan Al-Muaini, (Beirut: Arab Dissemination Foundation, 2016).

Ali Ashour, History of Imam Khomeini - His Personality, Characteristics, Revolution, and Policies - in the Words of Sayyid Ali Khamenei, Vol. 1, (Beirut, Arab History Foundation, 2012).

Ali Mahafza, Iran Between Persian Nationalism and the Islamic Revolution, (Beirut, Arab Studies and Publishing Institute, 2013).

Gholam Reza Najati, Modern Iranian History "Iran in the Pahlavi Era", Translation: Abdul Halim Al-Hamarani, (Qom, Islamic Book House Foundation, 2008).

Fadel Rasoul, This Is How Ali Shariati Spoke - His Thought and Role in the Rise of the Islamic Movement with Selected Texts from His Writings, 3rd ed., (Beirut: Dar Al-Kalima for Publishing, 1987).

Faridun Hoida, The Fall of the Shah, Translation: Ahmed Abdul Qadir Al-Shadhli, (Cairo, Maktabat Madbouli, 1993).

Kamel Salman Al-Jubouri, Sayyid Muhammad Kazem Al-Yazdi: His Life and Insights into His Religious Authority, Positions, and Political Documents - Facts, Documents, and Memoirs from the Political History of Iraq, Some of Which Were Unpublished Before, (Qom: Dhu Al-Qiblah for Publishing, 2006).

Mohammed Abdullah Al-Azzawi, Bazaargan and the Difficult Labor: A Study in the Power Struggle in Iran, (Damascus, Dar Al-Wataniyah Al-Jadidah, 2010).

Mohammed Sufi Abu Maghly, Guide to Contemporary Iranian Figures, (Basra: Arab Gulf Studies Center Publications, 1983).

Shah's Exiled Memoirs, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Translation: (Basra, Arab Gulf Studies Center, 1980).

Contemporary Iranian Encyclopedia - Personalities, Vol. 1, (Baghdad: Research and Studies Center, 1985).

Nizar Karim Jawad Al-Ruba'i and Faruq Mohammed Sadiq Al-Arji, Iran Between a Hammer ..., Vol. 3, (Amman, Dafaf for Printing and Publishing, 2013).

Na'im Qasim, Imam Khomeini: Authenticity and Renewal, (Beirut, Al-Mahaja Al-Bayda Foundation, 2011).

Homa Katouzian, Mosaddegh and the Power Struggle in Iran, Translation: Al-Tayyib Al-Husni, (Beirut, Jadawel for Publishing and Distribution, 2014).

Yaser Hussein, Intriguing Secrets in the Life of Shah Iran: The Emperor Who Fell from His Throne, (Cairo: Al-Rayya Center for Publishing, 2015).

English Book

Andrew Scott Cooper, The fall of heaven: The Pahlavi's and the final days of imperial Iran, New York, 2016.

Barry Rubin, Paved with Good Intentions the American Experience and Iran, New York, Penguin, 1980.

Christian Emery United States Iran Policy 1979-1980: The Anatomy and Legacy of American Diplomacy, Academic Journal, 2013.

Erika McLean, Beyond the Cabinet: Zbigniew Brzezinski’s Expansion of the National Security Adviser Position, Thesis Prepared for the Degree of Master of Arts (History), University of North Texas, 2011.

Hussein Fardoust,The Rise and Fall of the Pahlavi Dynasty: Memoirs of Former General Hussein Fardoust, Translated and Annotated: Ali Akbar Dareine, Delhi, 1999.

Javier Gil Guerrero, The Carter Administration and the Fall of Iran’s Pahlavi Dynasty US–Iran Relations on the Brink of the 1979 Revolution, New York, 2016.

Mark Gasiorowski, US Intelligence Assistance to Iran, May – October 1979, The Middle East Journal, 1997.

Upton J., The History of Modern Iran an Interpretation, Harvard 1961.

Zbigniew Brzezinski, power and principle – Memoirs of the National Security Adviser 1977 - 1981, New York, 1983.

Persian Books:

Ibrahim Yazdi, Memories of Dr. Ibrahim Yazdi - Sixty Years of Patience and Gratitude from Birth to Migration, Volume One, (Tehran: Khwar Publications, 2015).

Ibrahim Yazdi, Memories of Dr. Ibrahim Yazdi - Sixty Years of Patience and Gratitude from Birth to Migration, Volume Two (Eighteen Years in Exile), (Tehran: Khwar Publications, 2015).

Ibrahim Yazdi, Memories of Dr. Ibrahim Yazdi - Sixty Years of Patience and Gratitude from Birth to Migration, Volume Three, (Tehran: Khwar Publications, 2015).

Jalil Bozorgmehr, Political Sorrows of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, edited by Abdullah Barahani, 2nd ed. (Tehran, 2011).

Jimmy Carter, White House Diary, translated by Sanaa Shawqi Harb, 2nd ed., (Beirut: Al-Matba'at for Distribution and Publishing, 2013).

Hassan Pirnia and Abbas Eqbal Ashktiani, Complete History of Iran, 1st ed., (Tehran: Rasa Cultural Services Institute, 2010).

Memoirs of Shapur Bakhtiar - Prime Minister of Iran in 1978, translated by Habib Lajevardi, (Tehran, Harvard Middle East Studies Center, 1996).

Cyrus Ghani, Iran: The Rise of Reza Khan and the Fall of the Qajar Dynasty and the Role of the English, translated by Hassan Kamshad, 2nd ed., (Tehran, 1999).

Sadeq Ziba Kalam, Reza Shah, (Tehran: Roneh Publications, 2019).

Azizollah Bayat, Comparative History of Iran with the World Countries from the Medes to the Extinction of the Pahlavi Dynasty, 1st ed., (Tehran: Amir Kabir Publications, 2002).

Farhad Rostami, The Pahlavis: The Pahlavi Dynasty as Told by Documents - Reza Shah, Volume One, 2nd ed., (Tehran: Contemporary Iranian History Studies, 1999).

Mohammad Hussein Alawi, Memoirs of Ayatollah Boroujerdi from Zendkani, (Qom, Etela'at Publications, 1962).

Mohammad Reza Takhsheed, Iran-US Relations: From Confidence-Building Steps to Forceful Confrontations, Political-Economic Magazine, (Tehran, Issue 303, Spring 2016).

Mahmoud Staeesh, Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh: From My People's Servant, on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of Dr. Mossadegh's Premiership, (Tehran, Elborz Publications, 2001).

Mortaza Motahhari, Virtues and Services of Ayatollah Boroujerdi, (Tehran, Sadra Publications, 2001).

Historical Documents Research Center of the Ministry of Intelligence, Men of the Pahlavi Era (24) Shapour Bakhtiar as Narrated by SAVAK Documents, 1st ed., (Tehran, 2011).

Freedom Movement of Iran, Freedom Movement Documents, (Tehran, Freedom Movement Declaration Publications, 1983).

Fourth: Newspapers and Magazines:

Haider Ali Khalaf Al-Akili, American Policy Toward Iran during the Shapur Bakhtiar Government: January 1 - February 11, 1979, College of Education Journal, Wasit University, Issue 19, Year 9, 2015.

Haider Ali Khalaf Al-Akili, Ali Shariati: His Intellectual Innovations in Renewal and Reform, Lark Journal of Philosophy, Linguistics, and Social Sciences, University of Wasit, Vol. 4, Issue 39, October 1, 2020.

Shirin Samara, Ibrahim Yazdi - The Long Denial in the Heart of the Revolution, Published article on Jadeh Iran website, dated June 16, 2019. Link: https://jadehiran.com/archives.

Gary Sick, Everything Collapses, translated by Mohammad Javad Sahlani, Al-Tawhid Magazine, Issue 44, 1990.

Illustrated Al-Majalis Magazine (Kuwait), Issue 442, October 27, 1979.

Mohammad Rasan Daman Al-Sultani, The Political Activity of Sayyid Rouhollah Musavi Khomeini in Najaf al-Ashraf During the Period 1965 - 1978, Babel Center for Humanities Studies Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 1, 2015.

Nasrin Ismaili, Glimpses from the Life of the Late Imam Khomeini, Al-Tawhid Magazine, Issue 59, Dhul-Hijjah, 1412 AH.

Ettela'at Newspaper (Tehran), Issue 15838, May 4, 1979.

Kayhan Newspaper (Tehran), Issue 10689, April 22, 1979.

Krysta Wise, Islamic Revolution of 1979: The Downfall of American-Iranian Relations, "Legacy" Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Vol. 11, Issue 2011.

Scott Thompson, State Department welcomes Iranian butcher Ibrahim Yazdi into U.S.A., EIR Executive Intelligence Review, Volume 13, Number 24, June 13, 1986.



How to Cite

Khalaf, Ass.Prof Haider Ali. 2023. “Ibrahim Yazdi: His Life and Political Activities in Iran until 1979”. Thi Qar Arts Journal 2 (42). Huminites:330-64. https://doi.org/10.32792/tqartj.v2i42.442.