The family of Awlad Muhammad and its political and economic role in the western province of Tripoli, 1550-1813

  • Dr. Munther Obaid Radhiwi College of Arts / University of Thi Qar
Keywords: Awlad Muhammed, Fezzan Province, Western Tripol


This research sheds light on a family that influenced the history of the western Tripoli Eyale in general and the Fezzan region in particular, the family of  Muhammad al-Fassi''s sons, which extended its control over the province of Fezzan for a period of nearly two hundred and fifty years (1550-1813). This family had an active and prominent role in The political and economic events in the Fezzan region throughout that period, they engaged in a bitter struggle with the Ottomans (1551-1711) and the Karamanids (1711-1813) for control of Fezzan, and the repeated attempts of the ruling authorities in Tripoli failed to eliminate the rule of Muhammad' sons, Because of the strength of their influence in Fezzan, until the coming of Yusuf Pasha al-Qarmanli to power in Tripoli (1795-1833), who took advantage of the weakness that this family had become, and was able to end their rule.


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Sources and references

First: Arabic and Arabized books:

1- a. J. Hopkins, The Economic History of West Africa, translated by Ahmed Fouad Balbam, Cairo: The National Project for Translation, 1998).
2-Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ghalboun, The Remembrance of the King of Tripoli and its News, investigated by Ahmed Al-Zawi, (Tripoli, Al-Nour Library, 1967).
3-Abu Obaid Abdullah Ibn Abdul Aziz Al Bakri, Morocco in Remembrance of the Countries of Africa and Morocco, (Cairo: Dar Al-Kitab Al-Islami, d-T).
4- Aturi Rossi, Libya from the Arab conquest until 1911, translated by Khalifa Muhammad al-Talbi, (Tunisia: Arab Book House, 1991).
5-Ahmed Bey, the representative of Al-Ansari, Asweet Manhal in the History of Western Tripoli, (Tripoli: Al-Ferjani Library Publications, D-T).
6- Ahmed Sharif Al-Zahar, Memoirs of Ahmed Sharif Al-Zahar, Captain of the Supervision Syndicate of Algeria (1754-1830), investigation by Ahmed Tawfiq Al-Madani, (Algeria: The National Publishing Company).
7- Jean-Claude Zelter, Tripoli: The Crossroads of Europe and Central African Countries (1500-1775), translated by Jadallah Azzouz Al-Talhi, (Tripoli: Jamahiriya House for Publishing and Distribution, 2001).
8- John Francis Lyon, The Journey from Tripoli to Fezzan, translated by Mustafa Judeh, (Libya: Arab Book House, 1967).
9- John Lewis and Hart, Travels in Nubia and Sudan, translated by Fouad Balbam, (Cairo: The Egyptian Society for Historical Studies, 1949).
10- Habib Wadaa Al-Hasnawi, Documents of the State of Awlad Muhammad in Fezzan, (Tripoli: Libyan Jihad Center for Historical Studies, 1994).
11- Al-Hasan Hamad Al-Wazzan Al-Fassi, Description of Africa, investigated by Muhammad Hajji and Muhammad Al-Akhdar, (Beirut: Dar Al-Arab Al-Islami, 1983).
12- Hassan Abdullah Ali Mahjoub, Sahel Bin Omran Fezzan, (Benghazi: National Book House, 2012).
13- Rajab Nasir al-Abyad, Murzuq city and the desert caravan trade during the nineteenth century, a study in political and economic history, (Tripoli: National Library, 1998).
14- Rodlovo Mikaki, Tripoli, the West under the Karamanli family, translated by Taha Fawzy, (Tripoli: Dar Al-Ferijani, d-T).
15 Zakaria Ibn Muhammad Ibn Mahmoud al-Qazwini, Athar al-Bilad and Akhbar al-Abad (Beirut: Dar Sader 1960).
116- Salem Ali Al-Hajaji, The New Libya: A Geographical, Socioeconomic, and Political Study, (Tripoli: Al-Fateh Publications for Universities, 1989).
17- Charles Ferro, The Libyan Annals from the Arab Conquest until the Italian Invasion 1911, translated by Muhammad Abdul Karim Al-Wafi, (Benghazi: Garyounis University Publications, 1994).
18- Shawqi Atallah Al-Jameel and Abdullah Abdul-Razzaq Ibrahim, The Modern and Contemporary History of Africa, (Riyadh: Dar Al-Zahra, 2002).
19- Al-Taher Ahmed Al-Zawi, The Birth of Tripoli from the Ancient Conquest until the End of the Turkish Era, (Beirut: Dar Al-Fath for Printing and Publishing, 1970).
20- Al-Taher Al-Mahdi Bin Arifa, The Cultural and Social History of Fezzan, (Benghazi, National Book House, 2010).
21- Omar Muhammad Al-Baroni, ASEAN and the Knights of Saint John in Tripoli (Tripoli: Madi Press, 1954)
22- Gottlob Adolf Krause, The Libyan Interior, translated by Imad Al-Din Ghanem, (Tripoli: The Libyan Jihad Center for Historical Studies, 1998).
23- Frederic Hornemann, The Journey from Cairo to Murzuq, the capital of Fezzan, 1797, translated by Mustafa Muhammad Judeh, (Tripoli: Al-Karbagani Library, 1968).
24- Cola Folian, Libya during the rule of Yusuf Pasha Al-Qarmanli, translated by Abdul Qadir Mustafa Al-Muhaishi, (Tripoli: Libyan Jihad Center for Historical Studies, 1958).
25- Muhammad Salman Ayoub, a brief history of Fezzan from the earliest times until the year 1911, (Tripoli: The Libyan Press for Historical Studies, 1994).
26- Muhammad Ali Saud Omran, urban supervision and their impact on Fezzan, (Benghazi: National Library, 2002).
27- Muhammad Youssef Najm and Ihsan Abbas, Libya in the books of history and biography, (Benghazi: Libya House for Publishing and Distribution, 1868).
28- Mustafa Khoja, the history of Fezzan, investigated by Habib Fadaa Al-Hasnawi, (Tripoli: Libyan Jihad Center for Historical Studies, 1979).
29- Al-Hadi Al-Mabrouk Al-Dali, The Political and Economic History of Africa Beyond the Sahara from the End of the Fifteenth Century to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century, (Cairo: Egyptian Lebanese House, 1999).
30- Henricodi Augustini, Residents of Libya, translated by Khalifa Muhammad Al-Nalisi, (Tripoli: Arabic Studies for the Book, d-T).
31- Yahya Bu Aziz, Caravan routes and commercial markets in the Sahara, the caravan trade and its civilized role until the end of the nineteenth century, (Baghdad: Institute of Arab Research and Studies, 1984).

Second: Theses and theses:

1- Ajila Abdullah Saad Ammar Al-Rubaie, the political, economic and social history of Murzuq, 1550-1911, an unpublished master's thesis, College of Education, Sebha University - Libya, 2018.
2- Iman Muhammad Abd Alwan, The Political Role of Youssef Pasha Al-
Qarmanli in Western Tripoli (1795-1832), an unpublished MA thesis, College of Arts, University of Baghdad, 2017.
3- Samir Abd al-Rasoul Abdullah al-Obaidi, Tripoli, the West during the rule of the Spaniards and the Knights of Saint John 1510-1511, an unpublished MA thesis, College of Arts, University of Baghdad, 2003.

Third: Scientific journals:

1- Muhammad Al-Qadir Salamani, The slave trade in West Africa and its colonial repercussions on Senegal between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, Al-Nasiriya Journal of Social and Historical Studies, No. 5 and 6, (Khartoum, 2014).
2- Mustafa Injayi, From Kanem to Scotto, A Brief Political History of the Middle Sudan, Historical Readings Magazine, Issue 35, Year 14, (Khartoum: January, 2018.)
How to Cite
Radhiwi, D. M. O. (2022). The family of Awlad Muhammad and its political and economic role in the western province of Tripoli, 1550-1813. Thi Qar Arts Journal, 2(37), 39-63.
Historical Studies